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Large middens (organic rubbish dumps) are known at Natufian sites, located where they were created (rather than recycled and placed in secondary refuse pits).Dealing with refuse is one defining characteristics of the descendants of the Natufians, the Pre-Pottery Neolithic.Bedrock features, as a component of the ground stone industry, are a hallmark of the Natufian in the southern Levant and beyond (Nadel & Lengyel 2009; Nadel & Rosenberg 2010; 2011).These are found in all ecological settings and in some sites they are found in large numbers regardless of bedrock type (e.g., basalt, limestone, sandstone).Artifacts found at Natufian sites include grinding stones, which were used to process seeds, dried meats, and fish for planned meals and to process ochre for likely ritual practices.Flint and bone tools, and dentalium shell ornaments are also part of Natufian cultural material.Smaller, short-range dry season foraging camps may have been part of the settlement pattern, although evidence for them is scarce.
2012; Rosenberg & Nadel 2014); when found in burial context they appear to reflect upon their particular importance in both mundane and spiritual life.
Natufian sites are located in the Fertile Crescent region of western Asia.
Bedrock features are a hallmark of the Natufian (ca.
The direct descendants of the Natufian (known as the pre-pottery Neolithic or PPN) were among the earliest farmers on the planet.
For at least part of the year, Natufian people lived in communities, some quite large, of semi-subterranean houses.
Some fairly rare evidence suggests that that the Natufian people may have cultivated barley and wheat.